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Coolant replacement warning chart

Coolant replacement warning chart

The engine coolant needs to give your car’s cooling system 2 protection - (1) over boiling ( in tropical climate - antifreeze in temperate climate ) & (2) anti corrosion protection.

If you are using just water or distilled water in your car’s cooling system, there is a good chance corrosion is happening. The chart gives you an early indication to look out for problems that may occur in your car’s cooling system.

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The Car's AC Compressor

AC Compressor Cutaway

The AC compressor in a car is the heart beat of the air conditioning system. To understand how a car AC system works, please read my other blog here.

An AC compressor pretty much works like a water pump. At the intake side of the water pump, the water is at a lower pressure. The pump’s job is to take in or suck in this low pressure water so it enters into the pump & gets pressurised or pumped up to a high pressure. The output of the water pump would have a high pressure so it is usable to us, like water from our tap or even to feed this water into a garden hose to water your plants.

The AC compressor behaves the same way. It draws in or sucks in the low pressure refrigerant in gas form from the output of the evaporator. The liquid refrigerant that passes through the evaporator is “boiled” to a vapour. This gas form of the refrigerant then makes its way into the AC compressor & gets pressurised to a much higher pressure & temperature.

The the low pressure intake or suction side of the compressor you would expect to see the pressure at 25 PSI & the output of the compressor at a high pressure of 225 PSI. This operating pressures ensures the car AC system works at its optimum parameters giving you a cool ac.

Click here to watch a video on how a AC compressor works.

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Colours of Coolant

About Colours of Coolant.

There are mainly 3 types of antifreeze coolant formulations, Inorganic Additive Technology (IAT), Organic Acid Technology (OAT) & Hybrid Organic Technology (HOAT).

IAT have additives, which would be depleted while forming the protective layer. Their coolant coding are conventionally green or yellow colour. IAT coolant needs to be changed at regular intervals of 2 years. In Asia, IAT coolant poses a service problem of silicate drop out & corrosiveness would lead to damages in water pump seals & poor heat transfer.
Silicate built up combine

OAT coolant are formulated with Extended-Life carboxylate based material. Full carboxylate coolants contain no silicates & they only act upon areas or spots where corrosion protection is needed, instead of forming protective layers. Thus giving rise to their long life heavy duty protection. OAT coolant are compatible with existing IAT & HOAT coolant & can be mixed without problems with chemical reactions. They are pink or orange colour coded.

HOAT coolant are formulated with the combination of conventional IAT coolant & organic technology. They are usually used in cars with coper/brass radiator or heater core. The IAT part of the coolant provides quick anti corrosion actions while the OAT formula provides for extended service interval. They are blue, pink & orange colour coded.
Coolant Color ChartPeregine Coolant

How to choose a quality car battery & make your $$$ worth it

Battery lifeBattery-Alternator
Battery marketing chart

Do you have these experience with a car battery before? You bought a brand new battery & paid some good money for it, after installing it for 6 months it went dead. And the worst part is the warranty has expired.

Well, I recently had a bad experience myself. Just bought a new car & when the battery was tested it only have 12% life left on it & the dealer who sold me the car said that it can still last & no warranty claim was approved !

How do you choose a quality car battery & make your $$$ worth it?

Battery Life

A brand new battery is at 100% life. Overtime, its lifespan drops & when it reaches 30% the battery can drop dead anytime especially when the weather turns from hot to cold suddenly. Its recommended to change the battery at this point. As a rule of thumb, a car battery must have a minimum life of 80% before you install it in the car.

Internal Resistance

A battery internal resistance cannot be more than 10mΩ. It has to be as low as possible. The lower the resistance the easier for the battery to charge up.

Terminal voltage

The ideal terminal voltage of a battery is at least at 12.6V. The car’s alternator charges the battery & maintains the voltage.

For more information, please view my video at YouTube:

In my coming Tech Talk Series, I’m going to show you how to check the performance of a car’s alternator. In the meantime, you can pop into KoolTec Service Centers & have your battery checked.

Can you see the business opportunity here to sell more car batteries? Thank you for reading my blog.



Is your Toyota Yaris performing to your expectation at 40,000km? What can you do?

Toyota Yaris

This was the Yaris exhibited in 2010, IINAPA Exhibition in Jakarta. It was brand new.

This month I’m delighted to use this car while waiting for my new ride to arrive. The moment I cranked the car, adjusted the seats & the mirrors I noticed something is not doing well.....

First, it took a second too long to crank start the engine, the AC is way too warm & humid in fact it is warm in the day & cold at night, the engine is revving too loud & the auto transmission is not shifting gears smoothly. I’m someone who demands a quality drive so I set about improving it...

The engine performance
Added 1 can of Lambda oil extra & 1 can Tank Otto..that makes the engine calms down, the noise is reduced significantly 7 improve power! Installed 2 Qmax nano to maintain the engine power performance.

The Air Con
Flushed the air con with “KoolTec”. Before the compressor oil change the temp is 17C & after flushed its 4.5C. Now the AC is cold in the day! And fogged the AC for 30mins, I can enjoy fresh air free of bacteria.

Battery test yielded a (-100%) results. A brand new battery is 100% life & overtime it will degrade & when its at 30% it must be replaced. This battery (45Ah type) is minus -100%, it must be replace immediately.

Upon replaced, started the car & it stalled again, switch on AC compressor toggle on & off..thats funny. Pulled out my AutoTest electrical analyzer & measured - charging voltage only 12.7V (normal at least 13,8V) & the charging current is -20A!!! Shut off the engine, pulled out the fuse for the ECU for a few seconds & plug it back again. Problem solved - charging voltage at 14.5V & charing current at 5A. Lesson learnt - new cars its recommended to plug in a back up battery before replacing batteries. Look out for my future Tech Talk series about the back up battery part.

With a new battery & without fail each time you installed a 100% life new battery into your car, you will notice & feel that the car is more powerful, the head lights is brighter, auto transmission shifts smoothly & the car audio sounds better. These improvements are only momentarily. And there are ways to maintain & improve the electrical performance in your car. I will talk about them more in my next Tech Talk Series.

Thank you for reading this Blog.

Enjoy your car.


Honda CRZ Hybrid Hot AC ? Here is some cool advice

Honda CRZ AC

Hybrid vehicles ultilize 2 sources of energy to power the car, fossil fuel either gasoline or diesel & batteries.

A Honda CR Z Hybrid pulled into his garage & the owner complained of very hot AC. The standard diagnostics were done & the temperature measured was 20 degrees C. Since 90% of all AC failures are caused by the compressor lube/oil not replaced, my customer went ahead to flush out completely the old compressor oil. To our surprise the amount of oil is too little.

It was a good thing WW called me & enquired on the factory specification on the amount of PAG oil is needed for this CR Z.

Hybrid cars, like the CR Z, uses electrical compressors compared to belt driven ones in conventional cars. The compressor oil,
THIS IS VERY IMPORTANT TO NOTE, you must use a special compressor oil called “Hybrid compressor oil” of viscosity 100. Why? Hybrid compressor oil do not conduct electricity! After added the new hybrid oil of the correct amount, the AC was a chilling 1 degree C! Amazingly cold & a very happy customer.

Please never ever use conventional compressor PAG oil in any Hybrid cars. Consult your nearest KoolTec service centres for your hybrid cars AC servicing.

Thank you for reading my Blog.

Go Green & reduce your carbon foot print.



Why do we need anti freeze in our car’s radiator cooling system in a tropical climate

Coolant Marketing Chart

Why do we need antifreeze or coolant in our radiator cooling system in a hot climate? Anti freeze like the word suggest, keeps the radiator from freezing in winter, so you can still drive your car when its sub zero temperature in winter. The anti freeze effectively lower the freezing point of water in the radiator system. Correspondingly, when the freezing point is lowered the boiling point of the water is raised so the results of using anti freeze or engine coolant lowers the freezing point & raise the boiling point.

Increasing the boiling point

The increase in boiling point is what we’re after in a hot climate in the tropical countries like ours. A car’s engine operating temperature needs to be maintained at about 97
. If the car is driven hard, high speed & in a long distance drive, the “water” in the radiator would boil at 100 causing many common sights of cars pulling over with their bonnet steaming white vapor!

Ideal coolant temperature

If you add coolant to that “water”, it can raise the boiling point to prevent this steaming disaster. The ideal mixture of coolant is a - 35
reading in the radiator system. This can be easily tested with a refractor meter. At -35 , the boiling point of the coolant becomes 129 . This setting would keep your car engine cool.

PH level

Between -40 to - 10 , the coolant PH level is about 6.6 to 7.0. When the coolant concentration goes below - 10 , it turns acidic & if its above -40 , it turns alkaline. In either cases, it is corrosive at acidic or alkali states.

Summary of why you must have coolant in your radiator cooling system

  • Coolant keeps your engine cool

  • It absorbs heat & have a larger capacity to store heat as compared to water

  • It prevents corrosion to the engine block & radiator

  • Its makes your car AC colder

  • Coolant must be changed every 2 years or you can use a long life coolant

Check you coolant regularly to prevent overheating in the engine & premature damages to your radiator & water pump.

Thank you for reading my blog.



Are all compressor oil (PAG) made the same?

Primalec PAG oil Fact Sheet
PAG ( Poly-Alckylene-Glycol ) is the chemical name for compressor oil used in R134a car ac system. But all compressor oil made the same?

I’m sure most car owners change their engine oil frequently. Service interval usually for semi-syn oil is 5000 km & fully syn at 10,000km. These oil quality & grade varies from brand to brand & what is important is the additive that is blended with the base oil. The quality & quantity of the additive determines the price & quality of the drive.

PAG oil with good quality additives can extend your compressor life & keep your ac cold longer

PAG oil is quite similar in nature. They are fully synthetic, fully soluble with R134a refrigerant & most important there are additives in there to help maintain the operation of the compression & protection of the seals & O rings.

Match car manufacturer’s viscosity specifications

PAG oil comes in different viscosities - 46, 100, 125, 150 & esther to match the specifications required by the car manufacturer. If the amount of oil, viscosity & amount of refrigerant is correctly “mixed’ in the ac system, you’ve get a fantastically cold ac...period.

PAG absorbs water & air easily

PAG oil are hygroscopic, it absorbs water & air readily. The way it is stored & added into the ac system will affect the water & air content in the PAG oil. Oil with excessive water & air can cause damages to the ac components.

Insist on good quality PAG oil the next time you have your compressor oil replaced.

Thank you for reading my blog.



Hot car cabin, where does the heat comes from?

Hot Air where does it come from

Modern cars are much more luxury in their fittings now a days. Leather interior trims, leather seats, luxury carpets, bigger dash boards to house all the displays & gadgets & the list goes on.

Have you sometimes wonder? In the good old days when I sat in my father’s red Toyota Corolla in the 1970s, those cars do not come with AC. We simply open the windows & let the wind blow us cool or even with the windows closed on a rainy day it still feel not too hot.

Why can’t we do the same now? Some people may say, its the global warming! Yes that must be one of the attributing factors. Lets have a closer look at the picture above & I think it answers the question “ where does the heat comes from? “

This means we need the car’s AC to perform efficiently & at its optimum if we want to see that heat removed from the cabin.

Thank you for reading my blog.

You can do your part in anyway, big or small, to save our earth. Go Green.



90% of car air con failure is caused by compressor oil not replaced

90% of AC
AC System Components

In the good old days, we frequently see automobiles having to go through overhaul of engine. The lubricant companies began to educate workshops & car owners to replace engine oil at recommended service intervals. Now, we hardly see our car going through the cumbersome engine overhaul piece of work. We diligently replace our engine oil at 5000km or 10,000km.


The primary purpose of lubricants in general are (1) Lubricate to reduce friction (2) Remove frictional heat (3) To absorb dirt. Over time, it would loose its
viscosity, its ability to lubricate & it would turn acidic. There are now specific service intervals for engine oil, ATF, manual gear oil, differential axial oil, brake fluid, power steering fluid & radiator coolant.

Replace compressor oil (PAG) every 20,000 km

The service interval for replacement of compressor lubricant is between 20,000 km to 30,000 km depending on the driving condition. The modern car ac system uses PAG( Poly-Alckylene-Glycol ), which is synthetic, compressor oil & refrigerant R134a. The PAG oil mixes 100% with the R134a & it flows through the entire system lubricating the compressor. The amount of PAG oil & R134a a car ac system needs is specified by the car manufacturer & it differs from manufacturers.

PAG oil - correct amount to use

Unlike engine oil, where we use a large amount to lubricate(in the range of 4 liters) , the PAG oil used is usually in the range of 70ml to 200ml. This makes the PAG oil quantity or amount very critical to obtain a cold temperature. Here’s a way to picture this. If your car engine needs 4L of oil, if we add in an extra 2L or drain out 2L of oil. This would adversely affect the performance & protection of the engine & eventually lead to serious damages. Too much PAG oil or too little of it would similarly affect the performance of the compressor & its lifespan.

PAG oil replacement - A pain in the ass!

Traditionally, it is a very difficult & time consuming task to remove the compressor oil. The compressor, condenser, evaporator & expansion valve must be removed & flushed separately. And the dash board must be removed to get to the evaporator & expansion valve. Now there is a Cool & Simple Way to Make your car AC Cold” - KoolTec . The AC compressor oil can be removed & replaced with new oil in just 1 hour & no parts are removed in the process. Check out your nearest KoolTec service centres for a free diagnostic check.

Replace your car’s ac compressor oil every 20,000 km to enjoy a cool & fresh cabin & avoid expensive repair cost!

Thank you for reading my blog.



How to measure the degree of “coldness” in a car AC, let the numbers tell

Temp Vs Humidity

A comfortable air conditioned environment for us is between 20 to 29 degrees C & a humidity range of 30% to 70%. For example, for the car’s cabin temperature to reach 20 C the humidity should be at 30%. To efficiently achieve this level of coldness, the temperature measured just on the surface of the evaporator or cooling coil would be about 2 C.

A quick way to access your car’s ac performance is to wind down both the driver’s & passenger’s side window & set the ac to the coldest mark. You would then measure the temperature in the ac vent. A minimum performance standard, the ac vent temperature would be about 8 C or lower, the lower the better. We have a
video to demonstrate this performance measurement.

In my next Tech Talk Series, I would discuss further how we can achieve the optimum performance out of our car’s AC without removing parts in the process & we will discuss the contributing factors that causes our car’s AC to lose its efficiency.

Keep cool & stay heathy.

Thank you for reading my blog.



How Does Car Air Conditioning System Works

Watch the video here

Laws of physics

  • Heat travels from a hotter place to a cooler spot
  • Change of state - (a) when water is heated up it absorbs the heat energy & evaporates or boil (gain heat)
- (b) upon evaporation, the liquid becomes a gas/steam
- (c) if you place a cool piece of glass over the steam , it condenses into water droplets. (lose heat). The water changes state again, from gas to liquid

An AC system uses these principles to cool the car’s cabin. The objective of the ac is to move the hot air inside the car to the outside of the car. If we can move this hot air mass quickly enough & efficiently, we get nice cold air in the cabin.

Instead of using water, a car’s ac system uses a chemical called refrigerant ( R134a ). It has a funny characteristic, it can change state very quickly from liquid to gas state & vs versa. In liquid form the refrigerant is cold & when it absorbs heat, it can quickly evaporate or boil & become a gas. When in gas form & if it is cooled, the gas refrigerant would quickly become a liquid again.

Here’s how it really works. There is a component called an evaporator or cooling coil mounted inside the dashboard. The evaporator has liquid refrigerant flowing through it & its very cold ( on the surface about 2 degree C ). An electrical blower or fan is used to draw the hot air in the cabin onto the evaporator. The heat is absorbed by the cold refrigerant & what comes out from the evaporator is cold air.

The heat converts the liquid refrigerant into gas & it is moved by the compressor towards another component called a condenser. Cooler air from outside the car is drawn in by the forward movement of the car & the engine cooling fan. The condenser is usually at a temp. of 60 degree C. When the cool air from outside the car flows through the condenser, it cools the refrigerant, which is in gaseous state inside the condenser & it changes state to liquid again. This time the compressor will push this liquid refrigerant back into the evaporator & the cycle goes on over & over again in a split second.

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Car Air Conditioning & its support systems

Car AC a combined system

Q What are the related automotive systems the AC in your car depend on to function properly?
For a car’s AC system to operate efficiently, 3 systems must function well. The engine power train, the engine cooling system & the electrical charging alternator & battery.

The engine power train drives the AC compressor through a pulley belt, which directly drives the piston in the compressor. If the engine compression is unbalanced or its vibrating violently due to wear, there may not be enough torque to drive the compressor & leads to a poor performing compressor.

The battery provides enough crank current to start your car engine & the alternator takes over from that point to supply the electrical demands of your car including charging up the car’s battery. When the battery reaches its service life time it can cause havoc to the alternator. The charging voltage can fluctuate & the charging current drops. If the supply voltage drops below 12V it can cause the compressor clutch to burn off!

The engine cooling system comprises of the radiator, radiator coolant, water pump, engine cooling fan & the radiator cap. These components work in close harmony to keep the engine cool & at its optimum operating temperature. If the engine overheats, usually during a long & high speed drive, the AC compressor can heat up too causing an increase in refrigerant pressure resulting in hotter AC.

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Secrets to Success

Watch the slideshow here

Top myths about your car air conditioning system

Myth #1 - It’s a closed loop system, therefore needs no maintenance

Air con compressor oil is subjected to great heat & stress, second only to engine oil. Overtime, oil breaks down & becomes acidic, causing wear, corrosion, reduced cooling efficiency & increased fuel consumption. The compressor works harder, failing prematurely & requires costly repairs.

Myth #2 - Changing air con cabin filters regularly is sufficient to ensure clean air from your car’s AC

Unless your car is a top-end car using HEPA ( High efficiency Particulate ) air con filter, this is totally untrue. Bacteria & other harmful microbes thrive in dark & moist areas such as your air con evaporator. Our high humidity ensures that the evaporator remain wet for hours after the engine is switched off. In just a few months, any new car’s air con will be filled with mould & bacteria, which conventional air con filters are unable to remove. HEPA filters also reduce airflow drastically & thus are not suitable for normal cars.

Myth #3 - Wait a minute, I use a cluster ioniser in my car, I should be ok!

Ionizers cause dust & other particles to form clumps, which tend to settle more quickly. This means that you do breathe in fewer impurities, but those that you do not breathe in are likely to be in larger lumps. Sounds worse, doesn’t it?

Myth #4 - Air Con maintenance actually causes AC failure

If you have an old car & never performed air con maintenance, your air con evaporator can be corroded & your compressor may fail or jam soon. In this case, servicing the air con could lead to failure. However, with newer air con compressors, which are still working fairly well, regular change of air con compressor oil ( every 20,000km ) prolongs your air con compressor’s lifespan.

How many times do you have your home’s air conditioning serviced & maintained? Perhaps 2-3 times a year? The service job includes refrigerant top up, filter & blower cleaning to ensure you have a clean & cool air. The question is, how many times do you have car’s AC system serviced in a year?